Stem cell transplantation is a potentially curative procedure and an established therapeutic option for a number of diseases, primarily malignant diseases of the blood. In recent years, stem cell transplantation has also become an alternative therapeutic option for the treatment of other serious diseases, such as some autoimmune diseases.

During allogeneic stem cell transplantation, the hematopoietic system, including the immune system of the patient is replaced with that of a healthy donor. This procedure involves giving patients high-doses of chemotherapy and/or radiation to destroy the cancer cells and suppress/eradicate patient’s immune system in order to receive stem cells. Donated stem cells from a related or unrelated individual are then administered to the patient where they migrate to the bone marrow, expand and reconstitute the hematopoietic/immune system.

However, the long-term success of this treatment is still often limited by the development of life threatening complications, such as acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease.